Albert Einstein was one of the greatest minds of the 20th century. His general theory of relativity, published in 1915, is a cornerstone of modern physics and describes gravitation in modern physics. It hinges on the curved space-time, using the energy-momentum tensor – a mathematical construct – to explain how energy and momentum are distributed in space-time and interact with the gravitational field. In Einstein’s theory of gravity, the energy-momentum tensor is considered unchanged, or conserved. But a scientist from Russia has challenged this law of conservation presenting a new theory of gravity.

The traditional theory of relativity has its limitations, particularly at high energy levels where the so-called non-renormalisability problem arises. This means that mathematical flaws appear that cannot be eliminated.

In his new theory, that counters Einstein’s, Hamidreza Fazlollahi, a graduate student at the Educational and Scientific Institute of Gravity and Cosmology of RUDN University, claims to have found a solution to this problem.

“The problem of non-renormalizability of Einstein’s gravity is well known. It has led to dozens of attempts to treat it as a low-energy theory. For example, in string theory, Einstein’s classical equation is just the first term in an infinite series of gravitational corrections,” Mr Fazlollahi said in a press release.

“So it is possible that at high energy and/or within the event horizon of black holes, space-time curvature and gravity deviate from Einstein’s general theory of relativity. This can be explained in different ways. However, in any case, the law of conservation of energy-momentum can be violated at high energy levels,” he further said.

In his new gravitational model, the researcher started from the so-called Gibbs-Duhem relation that is used in thermodynamics to describe changes in a system.

The resulting equation is similar to Einstein’s but includes unique factors and constants, accounting for temperature-entropy and charge-interaction dynamics.

Mr Fazlollahi’s model represents a significant step in understanding gravity, especially in extreme conditions, and could pave the way for new insights into the universe’s mysteries. The model’s alignment with experimental data suggests it could be a valuable tool for future research in astrophysics and cosmology.

The study is published in *The European Physical Journal C*.